The first Case Studies in Crowd Management book focused mainly on a series of festivals and events that had a number of issues which required solving. This book focuses on a series of events that had major issues that impacted on the every day delivery of the events researched. This important work has been compiled from a series of research projects carried out by the staff of the Centre for Crowd Management and Security Studies at Buckinghamshire Chilterns University College, and seminar work carried out in Berlin and Groningen with partner Yourope.
This first title in a collaboration between Entertainment Technology Press and Buckinghamshire Chilterns University College includes chapters on various safety aspects of live event production written by specialists in their particular areas of expertise. The book examines the subject from different viewpoints including the theoretical concepts, the application and licensing issues, the human element and a theoretical case study on perceived anti-social behaviour at rock concerts — a topic that raises controversial and difficult conclusions in itself.
A compilation of the findings of reports made at two major live music concerts, and in particular crowd behaviour. The book also offers advice on crowd safety, Health and Safety guidance for concerts, crowd control, management and safety, and on the importance of planning events and being prepared. More About Us. The higher the activation level, the more likely it is that this behaviour will be chosen.
The changes in activation over time result in a dynamic ordering of behaviour. The activation value of a rule is also described in an activation equation see equation 2 and 3. However, the way activation is used is different. For a fact, usage concerns the retrieval time, but for a rule, it concerns the order in which behaviour will be selected before execution.
Processes 3. Perception 3. In the CROSS framework, the way perception affects the internal state of an agent distinguishes three types of perceptual influences: priming, physiology update and memory update of cognitive elements. Depending on what is perceived, the corresponding internal representation is made more active via priming. Those behaviour rules that are perceived in the environment increase, whereas the activity of non-perceived behaviour rules decrease. After priming, the specific content is updated both physiologically physiology update and within memory memory update of goals and facts.
It concerns an update of arousal and any other included context-depending physiological element.
The way the levels are updated depends on the context- or theory-related choice within a CROSS model, i. It concerns an update of the goals, i. Each goal has its own satisfaction-function that is based on context-related knowledge and assumptions. Behaviour selection 3. Behaviour selection involves a process of selecting 'suitable' behaviour within a certain amount of time, visualised in figure 3. Suitable behaviour is behaviour that best satisfies the goal that is most dominant at a particular moment.
In the behaviour selection process, time and comparison are the two main parameters. In line with the amount of time an agent has available, the selection process starts by retrieving behaviour with the highest activation level. For as long as there is time left, this behaviour is compared to behaviour that is next in line. The best behaviour option is chosen and used for further comparison. Retrieval of memory elements takes time, which is based on its activation value.
Behaviour with the highest activation levels are not only compared first, they are also retrieved faster. The order is based on the activation value of the behaviour rules. Since the activation level is a consequence of perception, the ordering of behaviour rules is dynamic and situated.
The comparison itself is represented in a function that attributes a utility value bUtil b to each behaviour under comparison see equation 4. The comparison function is based on the expectation bExpect g of behaviour in combination with goal dominance goalDom g.
The expectation indicates the expected fulfilment of the corresponding goal g when exhibiting certain behaviour. The comparison value incorporates the contribution of all goals in accordance with their dominance. Figure 3. An agent chooses the 'suitable' behaviour based on the expectations an agent has of a behaviour. The decision process is affected by time and the order of comparison behaviour options are ordered based on their current activation level. Putting it all together 3. On the macro level one sees an agent joining another agent and adopting behaviour. On the micro level one is able to follow why each agent is choosing this particular behaviour.
Any chosen behaviour can be related to external and internal settings of that agent. On the cognitive level, its internal state consists of goal dominance in which the identity goal is most dominant, shortly followed by its social goal. Furthermore, the internal representation of behaviour an agent can show has currently the order of type [2,3,0,1].
Both the agent's identity and social goals have been satisfied, however now the social goal has become dominant.
In addition to the changes in goal dominance, also the behaviour ranking has changed into [2,0,1,3]. Recall that behaviour ranking is a result of the behaviour that agent 2 perceived that affects the activation level of the behaviour representation via priming. Figure 4. The components of a crowd behaviour model consist of a social and physical environment and multiple agents. CROSS agents' behaviour is described on the cognitive level, meaning that they decide on what their behaviour will be based on their current internal state f goal dominance, behaviour ranking.
However, their internal state will change over time while they interact with their social and physical environment.
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Goal dominance is less prominent, and the behaviour ranking is now [1,2,0,3] which fits more closely to the behaviour that is shown. Explanation is sought by relating the different levels to each other. The model should represent the integration of the generic CROSS framework with context-specific relevant factors, theories and behaviour under investigation.
This involves specifying both the physical and social environment and the internal world of the agents. Since the CROSS agents in the model are supposed to act at a festival, the CROSS framework is specified in such a way that the agents are able to witness musical entertainment in an outdoor setting and are motivated to do so.
The CROSS agents' behaviour is based on the influences of their local surroundings and internal state. Based on their goals and on the dominance of these goals, a CROSS agent chooses to be close to the stage or with friends, to dance, to go to the toilet or to go to the bar. The colours indicate the agents' dominant goal: yellow: identity listening to music ; pink: social being close to others ; red: safety avoid crowded areas ; brown: subsistence urge to visit the toilet or bar.
When orange the agent is inhibited to move. Movie 1. The environment 4. The physical environment involves a festival area and relevant festival objects, such as a bar, toilets, and a stage represented by a grid layer. The physical representations of the environment allow the agents to distinguish between walkable and non-walkable areas on the festival area as well as identifying specific objects and places that may fulfil the agents' goals, i.
For example, listening to music near the stage or having a drink at the bar relate physical location to goal-satisfaction. This social structure is formalised in a network topology. It represents the number of agents, but also social connections who knows who.
Although the actual influence of the social environment remains an internal activity in each agent  , the network topology serves initialisation, experimenting and logging purposes. Relevant physical and social environmental factors 4.
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- Zoey Le Mar and the Veil of Fear.
- A Comparative Study of Crowd Behaviour at Two Major Music Events;
- A Comparative Study of Crowd Behaviour At Two Major Music Events on Apple Books.
In the CROSS model, density is included as it has a direct impact on behaviour at the individual level, especially on freedom of movement and on behaviour patterns. For the other factors, the causal mechanisms are not clear, because the reported correlations don't describe how behaviour is affected that explains the group level patterns.
They are therefore not included. For reasons of simplicity only friendship and leadership as a power-relationship were included.
Agents 4. Physiology 4. Memory 4. Context, however, specifies what and in what way goals are being satisfied or not.
Facts, on the other hand are fully context-dependent. Given the festival context with the physical and social environment, facts are needed that allow the festival agent to recognise points of interests such as the stage, bar and toilet area facts ; and other people as friend or leader person facts. Behaviour facts are specified in terms of expectation values for each behaviour: how satisfying would it be to perform a particular behaviour.
Related A Comparative Study of Crowd Behaviour at Two Major Music Events
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