Stephen Hales was the first person who procured a flammable fluid from the actual distillation of coal in and John Clayton, in , called gas the "spirit" of coal and discovered its flammability by accident. William Murdoch sometimes spelled "Murdock" was the first to use this gas for the practical application of lighting. In the early s, while overseeing the use of his company's steam engines in tin mining in Cornwall, Murdoch began experimenting with various types of gas, finally settling on coal-gas as the most effective.
He first lit his own house in Redruth , Cornwall in In Paris , gas lighting was first demonstrated in November at a private residence on the rue Saint-Dominique, and was installed on a covered shopping street, the Passage des Panoramas , in A Parisian writer enthused in August, "That which most enchants the Parisians is the new lighting by gas of the boulevards From the church of the Madeleine all the way to rue Montmartre, these two rows of lamps, shining with a clarity white and pure, have a marvelous effect.
Less than two years later, on 31 December , the Westminster Bridge was lit by gas. Following this success, gas lighting spread to other countries. The use of gas lights in Rembrandt Peale 's Museum in Baltimore in was a great success. The first place outside London in England to have gas lighting, was Preston, Lancashire in , this was due to the Preston Gaslight Company run by revolutionary Joseph Dunn , who found the most improved way of brighter gas lighting.
Oil-gas appeared in the field as a rival of coal-gas. In , John Taylor patented an apparatus for the decomposition of "oil" and other animal substances. The first modern street lamps to use kerosene were introduced in Lviv in what was then the Austrian Empire in In Brest , street lighting with kerosene lamps reappeared in in the shopping street as a tourist attraction. Farola fernandina is a traditional design of gas street light which remains popular in Spain. Essentially it is a neo-classical French gas lamp style dating from the late 18th century.
It may be either a wall-bracket or standard lamp.
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The standard base is cast metal with an escutcheon bearing two intertwined letters 'F', the Royal cypher of King Ferdinand VII of Spain  and commemorates the date of the birth of his daughter, the Infanta Luisa Fernanda, Duchess of Montpensier. The first electric street lighting employed arc lamps , initially the 'Electric candle', 'Jablotchkoff candle' or ' Yablochkov candle ' developed by a Russian, Pavel Yablochkov , in This was a carbon arc lamp employing alternating current , which ensured that both electrodes were consumed at equal rates.
In , the common council of the City of Los Angeles ordered four arc lights installed in various places in the fledgling town for street lighting. On 30 May , the first electric street lights in Paris were installed on the avenue de l'Opera and the Place d'Etoile, around the Arc de Triomphe , to celebrate the opening of the Paris Universal Exposition.
In , to coincide with the Paris International Exposition of Electricity, street lights were installed on the major boulevards. The first streets in London lit with the electrical arc lamp were by the Holborn Viaduct and the Thames Embankment in The United States was quick in adopting arc lighting, and by over , were in operation in the US, commonly installed in exceptionally tall moonlight towers. Arc lights had two major disadvantages. First, they emit an intense and harsh light which, although useful at industrial sites like dockyards, was discomforting in ordinary city streets.
Second, they are maintenance-intensive, as carbon electrodes burn away swiftly.
With the development of cheap, reliable and bright incandescent light bulbs at the end of the 19th century, arc lights passed out of use for street lighting, but remained in industrial use longer. The first street to be lit by an incandescent lightbulb was Mosley Street, in Newcastle upon Tyne. The street was lit for one night by Joseph Swan 's incandescent lamp on 3 February Kimberley , Cape Colony modern South Africa , was the first city in the Southern Hemisphere and in Africa to have electric street lights - with 16 first lit on 2 September In , the tiny, isolated mining town of Waratah in NW Tasmania was the first to have electrically powered street lighting in Australia.
Sutton and Co. In Walhalla, Victoria , Victoria , Australia became the first city in the Southern Hemisphere to have permanent electric street lighting when a limited system was installed along the main street by the Long Tunnel Gold Mining Company. Four years later in the New South Wales town of Tamworth installed a large system illuminating a significant portion of the city, with over 13 km of streets lit  by 52 incandescent lights and 3 arc lights,  for which that city maintains the title of "First City of Light".
Incandescent lamps were primarily used for street lighting until the advent of high-intensity gas-discharge lamps. They were often operated at high-voltage series circuits. Series circuits were popular since their higher voltage produced more light per watt consumed. Furthermore, before the invention of photoelectric controls, a single switch or clock could control all the lights in an entire district. To avoid having the entire system go dark if a single lamp burned out, each street lamp was equipped with a device that ensured that the circuit would remain intact. Early series street lights were equipped with isolation transformers.
Later the film cutout was invented. This was a small disk of insulating film that separated two contacts connected to the two wires leading to the lamp.
If the lamp failed an open circuit , the current through the string became zero, causing the voltage of the circuit thousands of volts to be imposed across the insulating film, penetrating it see Ohm's law. In this way, the failed lamp was bypassed and power restored to the rest of the district. The street light circuit contained an automatic current regulator, preventing the current from increasing as lamps burned out, preserving the life of the remaining lamps. When the failed lamp was replaced, a new piece of film was installed, once again separating the contacts in the cutout.
This system was recognizable by the large porcelain insulator separating the lamp and reflector from the mounting arm. This was necessary because the two contacts in the lamp's base may have operated at several thousand volts above ground. Today, street lighting commonly uses high-intensity discharge lamps. Low-pressure sodium lamp s became commonplace after World War II for their low power consumption and long life. Late in the 20th century HPS high pressure sodium lamps were preferred, taking further the same virtues.
Studies comparing metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps have shown that at equal photopic light levels, a street scene illuminated at night by a metal halide lighting system was reliably seen as brighter and safer than the same scene illuminated by a high pressure sodium system. Two national standards now allow for variation in illuminance when using lamps of different spectra. New street lighting technologies, such as LED or induction lights , emit a white light that provides high levels of scotopic lumens allowing street lights with lower wattages and lower photopic lumens to replace existing street lights.
Eastbourne in East Sussex UK is currently undergoing a project to see of its street lights converted to LED and will be closely followed by Hastings in early Milan, Italy , is the first major city to have entirely switched to LED lighting.
It is also one of the first cities in North America to use Smart City technology to control the lights. Photovoltaic-powered LED luminaires are gaining wider acceptance. Preliminary field tests show that some LED luminaires are energy-efficient and perform well in testing environments. This streetlight design thus reduces energy consumption as well as light pollution.
Two very similar measurement systems were created to bridge the scotopic and photopic luminous efficiency functions,    creating a Unified System of Photometry. The cost-savings potential of using a new way to measure mesopic lighting scenarios is tremendous. Outdoor Site-Lighting Performance OSP is a method for predicting and measuring three different aspects of light pollution: glow, trespass and glare. Major advantages of street lighting include prevention of accidents and increase in safety. Furthermore, in the s, lighted intersections and highway interchanges tend to have fewer crashes than unlighted intersections and interchanges.
Towns, cities, and villages use the unique locations provided by lampposts to hang decorative or commemorative banners. Many communities in the US use lampposts as a tool for fund raising via lamppost banner sponsorship programs first designed by a US based lamppost banner manufacturer. The major criticisms of street lighting are that it can actually cause accidents if misused, and cause light pollution.
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There are also physical dangers to the posts of street lamps other than children climbing them for recreational purposes. Street light stanchions lampposts pose a collision risk to motorists and pedestrians, particularly those affected by poor eyesight or under the influence of alcohol. This can be reduced by designing them to break away when hit frangible or collapsible supports , protecting them by guardrails, or marking the lower portions to increase their visibility.
High winds or accumulated metal fatigue also occasionally topple street lights. In urban areas, light pollution can hide the stars and interfere with astronomy and the migration of many bird species. These lamps are advantageous over other lamps such as mercury and metal halide lamps because low pressure sodium lamps emit lower intensity, monochromatic light. Observatories can filter the sodium wavelength out of their observations and virtually eliminate the interference from nearby urban lighting. Full cutoff streetlights also reduce light pollution by reducing the amount of light that is directed at the sky which also improves the luminous efficiency of the light.
A number of street light control systems have been developed to control and reduce energy consumption of a town's public lighting system. These may include sending and receiving instructions via separate data networks, at high frequency over the top of the low voltage supply or wireless. Street light controllers are smarter versions of the mechanical or electronic timers previously used for street light ON-OFF operation.
They come with energy conservation options like twilight saving, staggering or dimming. Many street light controllers also come with traffic sensors to manage the lux level of the lamp according to the traffic and to save energy by decreasing lux when there is no traffic. America, Canada, India and many other countries have started introducing street light controllers to their road lighting for energy conservation, street light management and maintenance purpose. As the equipment's lifetime is 7 to 10 years it saves energy and cost for some years. A number of companies are now manufacturing Intelligent street lighting that adjust light output based on usage and occupancy, i.
Also the lights adjust depending on road conditions, for example, snow produces more reflectance therefore reduced light is required.
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There are three distinct main uses of street lights, each requiring different types of lights and placement. Misuse of the different types of lights can make the situation worse by compromising visibility or safety. A modest steady light at the intersection of two roads is an aid to navigation because it helps a driver see the location of a side road as they come closer to it and they can adjust their braking and know exactly where to turn if they intend to leave the main road or see vehicles or pedestrians.
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A beacon light's function is to say "here I am" and even a dim light provides enough contrast against the dark night to serve the purpose. To prevent the dangers caused by a car driving through a pool of light, a beacon light must never shine onto the main road, and not brightly onto the side road. In residential areas, this is usually the only appropriate lighting, and it has the bonus side effect of providing spill lighting onto any sidewalk there for the benefit of pedestrians. On Interstate highways this purpose is commonly served by placing reflectors at the sides of the road.
Because of the dangers discussed above, roadway lights are properly used sparingly and only when a particular situation justifies increasing the risk.
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